Monthly Archives: October 2017

jPOS-EE Crypto Service

In many jPOS systems, we secure sensitive data using ANS X9.24 DUKPT as described in the Encrypting sensitive data post. The approach served us well, but now we believe we have a better one, using PKI and AES-256.

The cryptoservice module uses AES-256 to encrypt sensitive data, such as primary account numbers and protects the encryption key using PGP.

At start-up time, and at regular intervals, the crypto service generates a new AES-256 key, encrypts it using PGP using one or more recipient ids, and stores the resulting encrypted message in the sysconfig table, using the “key.” prefix, and a unique key UUID, i.e.:

id: key.f55fe6ec-ed9e-47a1-a0fe-c63dcbf128cb
Version: BCPG v1.56



The key is used to encrypt subsequent data for a given period of time (defaults to one day) until a new key is automatically generated.

Here is a sample usage:

private void encryptCardData (TLCapture tl, Card card)      <1>
   throws Exception {
     Map<String,String> m = new HashMap<>();
     m.put ("P", card.getPan());
     m.put ("E", card.getExp());
     SecureData sd = getCryptoService().aesEncrypt(         <2>
     tl.setKid(sd.getId());                                 <3>
     tl.setSecureData(sd.getEncoded());                     <4>
  • <1> TLCapture in this example is a general purpose capture table.
  • <2> getCryptoService() just locates the CryptoService using the NameRegistrar
  • <3> kid stands for Key ID, we store the key UUID here
  • <4> secureData is a general purpose blob

The crypto service can be configured using a QBean descriptor like this:

<crypto-service class='org.jpos.crypto.CryptoService' logger='Q2'>
    <property name="custodian" value='' />               <1>
    <property name="pubkeyring" value='cfg/' />            <2>
    <property name="privkeyring" value='cfg/keyring.priv' />          <3>
    <property name="lazy" value="false" />                            <4>
    <property name="keylength" value="256" />                         <5>
    <property name="duration" value="86400000" />                     <6>
  • <1> custodian PGP id, there can be many custodian entries.
  • <2> path to the public keyring.
  • <3> path to the password-protected private keyring.
  • <4> if lazy=true, a key is generated the first time we call aesEncrypt, otherwise, a new one is created at service start.
  • <5> key length defaults to 256. Can be reduced if AES-256 is not supported by the JVM due to export restrictions.
  • <6> key duration

This allows jPOS nodes to encrypt data securely without storing the encryption key to disk.

NOTE: The transient encryption key is still in memory, so core dumps and swap should be
disabled at the operating system level. This approach is still more secure
than obfuscating encryption keys.

Decryption — that can of course run in a different node, at a different time — requires
access to the private keyring, with its optional password. Said password can be entered
manually, obtained from a remote service or HSM, etc. and it’s a two step process.

First the key has to be loaded into memory, using the loadKey method. Once the key
is loaded, the aesDecrypt can be called.

These are the method’s signatures:

public void loadKey (String jobId, String keyId, char[] password) throws Exception;
public byte[] aesDecrypt (String jobId, String keyId, byte[] encoded) throws Exception;

Here keyId, password, and encoded cryptogram don’t require too much explanation, but jobId does and here is the rationale. We could have a one-shot aesDecrypt method accepting the private key password, but decrypting the AES-256 key using PGP is an expensive operation. In situations where you have extract a daily file, probably encrypted by just a handful keys, you don’t want to decrypt the key on every aesDecrypt call. We don’t want to expose the key to the caller either, so the CryptoService keeps it in a private field. In order to do that, loadKey caches the key (until it’s unloaded), so it’s cheap to call loadKey followed by aesDecrypt, after the first call where the key is actually decrypted, subsequent calls will be pretty fast.

In order to protect different clients from accessing keys loaded by other ones, we use a jobId that can be something as simple as a UUID or any nonce, only known to the caller. That jobId can then be used to unload those keys, using the unloadKey and unloadAll methods:

public boolean unloadKey (String jobId, String keyId);
public void unloadAll(String jobId);

There’s also a no-args unloadAll() that unloads all keys, and should be used with care.

NOTE: In order to simplify development and testing, and eventually to troubleshoot problems, we’ve also created a couple of CLI commands: aesencrypt and aesdecrypt.

TIP: If you’re accessing the CLI using the command line q2 --cli, remember that the default deployDir is deploy-cli instead of deploy. You need a copy (or symlink) of 25_cryptoservice.xml in that directory. If you ssh to a running Q2 to reach the CLI, then you can ignore this tip.

For up-to-date information about this CryptoService module, please see the jPOS-EE guide.


There’s a new handy org.jpos.transaction.TxnId class in the jPOS-EE txn module that can be used to generate transaction ids in multi-node systems.

The id is composed of:

  • 1-digit century
  • 2-digits year
  • 3-digits day of year
  • 5-digits second of day
  • 3-digits node id
  • 5-digits transaction id

A typical ID long value would look like this: 173000702600000001, and the toString() method would show as 017-300-07026-000-00001 and the toRrn() method would return 1bbfmplq9la9.

TxnId also has a handy toRrn() method that can be used to create (and parse) 12-characters strings suitable to be used as retrieval reference numbers.

TxnId can be used instead of UUIDs. It puts less pressure in the database index and provides chronological order.

NOTE: The last two groups, node-id and transaction-id are supposed to be unique. transaction-id is easy to get from the transaction manager and node-id is a tricky one, user has to ensure each node has a unique node-id to avoid collisions.

Sample usage:

TxnId txnId = TxnId.create(, 0, id);